This implies that normative rewards typically flow through "strong tie" relationships, while informational benefits may accrue from any known party possessing the required knowledge and expertise, regardless of tie strength. Kenneth R. Lord, Myung-Soo Lee, and Peggy Choong (2001) ,"Differences in Normative and Informational Social Influence", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28, eds. The foregoing analysis suggests that higher levels of involvement and product/servic complexity are associated with purchase decisions involving informational influence than with those involving normative, while the opposite is true of the conspicuousness of the purchase and/or consumption of the product or service. H2: Purchase situations involving informational social influence will be characterized by higher levels of decision complexity than those involving normative influence. According to NOAD conformity is a noun and means compliance with standards, rules, or laws. Researchers have categorized the motivation to conform into two types: normative social influence and informational social influence (Deutsch & Gerard, 1955). Conspicuousness, therefore, is expected to be associated more with normative than with informational social influence. Full reference section is below. The request may be explicit, as in the direct The inconclusiveness of the homophily test, and perhaps also of the ATSCI findings, may be partially attributable to the constrained demographic and psychographic variability that is inherent in the use of a student sample. Myung-Soo Lee, City University of New York Testing a model of the role of social context in early adoption behavior, Fisher and Price (1992) showed that "perceived visibility of consumption" (conspicuousness) affects consumer predictions of social approval from referents. Richard J. Lutz, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 297-300. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28, 2001     Pages 280-285 DIFFERENCES IN NORMATIVE AND INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE Kenneth R. Lord, Mercer University Myung-Soo Lee, City University of New York Peggy Choong, Niagara University ABSTRACT - In an investigation of the distinctive characteristics of normative and informational social influence, a survey probed purchase decision, individual difference, and consumer-referent relationship characteristics associated with recent purchase episodes involving advice from others. Forty students in an evening MBA program were asked to provide information about two recent purchase decisions involving social influence. The request in question can be either explicit, as in the form of a direct verbal request, or implicit, as in the form of an advertisement that promotes the qualities of a product without explicitly asking one to purchase (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004). Respondents completed the ATSCI scale (Cronbach a reliability coefficient .90). As nouns the difference between conformance and conformity is that conformance is the act of conforming; conformity while conformity is state of things being similar, or identical. Assael, Henry (1987), Consumer Behavior and Marketing Action, Boston: Kent. Peggy Choong, Niagara University, NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28 | 2001, Thomas Allard, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Levels of involvement and complexity were shown to be greater in informational influence situations than in normative. The means, standard deviations and contrast results associated with this and the other hypothesis tests are reported in Table 2. upport for hypothesis 2 is marginally significant (F2,71 = 270, p < .10, h2 = .07). The conspicuousness hypothesis (3) obtained support (F2,71 = 6.31, p < .01, h2 = .15). - The stimulus is ambiguous so they look to the group for information to resolve the ambiguity. There is a need to test the unsupported homophily and ATSCI predictions under more powerful conditions before rejecting them out of hand, and to identify any other individual-difference characteristics that may play a role in normative and informational social influence. Public conformity is a superficial change in behavior (including the public expression of opinions) that is not accompanied by an actual change in one’s private opinion. H3: Purchase situations involving normative social influence will be characterized by higher levels of product or service conspicuousness than those involving informational influence. These expectations lead to the following hypothesis: H6: Relative to referents solicited for informational purposes, normative referents will be characterized by: b. What is the difference between conformity and obedience? The greatest normative influence is usually exerted within primary reference groups such as the immediate family (Cooley 1962). Peer pressure is a classic example of normative conformity. Specifically, the confederate either rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot. The decision uncertainty occasioned by complexity would potentially activate a motivation to seek input from those perceived as possessing expertise relevant to the salient attributes of the desired product or service. Becoming an Association for Consumer Research member is simple. (Don’t tell me what it is, you told me in # 1, give examples) 4. Both behaviors involve pressure and influence but certain characteristics allow differentiation of one from the other. Or when a person is in an ambiguous (i.e. Gerard (1955), "A Study of Normative and Informational Social Influence Upon Individual Judgment," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51, 629-636. As predicted, involvement differed significantly between the three categories (F2,71 = 3.16, p < .05, h2 = .08), with the mean involvement level higher in informational social influence contexts (5.76) than in normative (5.17). Conformity is the tendency for an individual to align their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors with those of the people around them. What is the difference between informational social influence and Analyses of reported differences between the two parties with respect to the demographic and psychographic variables identified in the earlier description of the measurement instrument yielded only one significant difference in means or proportions between social influence categories (F2,71 = 3.06, p < .05, h2 = .08). A homophilous tie is one in which the consumer and the referent possess shared characteristics with respect to values, lifestyles, demographics, etc. 1. A survey approach was employedto investigate these issues. On the other hand, informational conformity occurs because of the desire to be correct. Sherif's Study. Preferred body images also demonstrate the powerful role of conformity, both normative and informational. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Information social influence occurs when people conform to peer views in an attempt to reach the correct answer for themselves; it is the desire to be correct. Another issue warranting investigation is the extent to which the two types of social influence differ in the propensity for a particular referent’s influence to be exerted for a single product or service, related products only, or across product categories (monomorphism versus polymorphism). Deutsch, M and H.B. (Watch in HD) Created by Michael MacKenzie. When we start smoking cigarettes or buy shoes we cannot really afford in order to impress others, we do these things not so much because we think they are the right things to do but rather because we want to be liked. There are two types of conformity, normative conformity, and informational conformity. In such cases, due to mutual fear for each other, an individual may naturally try to agree with the rest in order to avoid appearing as contradictory or controversial. 13, ed. Normative Influence is conformity based on one's desire to fulfill others' expectations and gain acceptance (Myers, 2009). Majority Influence: Conforming to the Group Mascarenhas, Oswald A.J. Consistent with the expected difference in the frequency of prior contact between normative and informational referents, one might expect influencers accessed for normative purposes to play a referent role in more purchase situations than informational sources. Perhaps you have noticed in your own behavior a type of very subtle conformity—the tendency to imitate other people who are around you. It has been argued that the distinction between informational and normative conformity is more apparent than real and that it may not be possible to fully differentiate them (Turner, 1991). Whether it is due to normative or informational social influence, groups have power to influence individuals. Such an objective is seemingly more consistent with informational social influence than with a normative focus on social rewards or conformity. The normative-informational distinction may account for these contrasting findings. 3. And when the experimenters asked the participants if they had noticed anything unusual about the behavior of the other person during the experiment, none of them indicated awareness of any face rubbing or foot shaking. In contrast, informational social influence arises from a Levels of involvement and complexity were shown to be greater in informational influence situations than in normative. This leads to the following prediction: H4: Consumers soliciting referent advice for normative reasons will be characterized by higher levels of attention to social comparison information than those reporting informational influence. © 2021 Association for Consumer Research, The Journal of the Association for Consumer Research (JACR). This results in conformity, in the form of individuals altering their utterances or demeanor to be more like what they perceive to be the norm. With respect to the former perspective, the test of differences between category means (F2,71 = 2.89, p < .10, h2 = .08) showed lower respondent-referent contact frequency in informational (3.14) than in normative or combined situations (4.08 and 3.80, respectively). The intent of this research effort is to explain and empirically demonstrate the distinctive characteristics of normative and informational social influence with respect to decision, individual difference, and consumer-referent relationship variables. E.g. Beatty, Sharon E. and Scott M. Smith (1987), "External Search Effort: An Investigation Across Several Product Categories," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (June), 83-95. The wide variation in product categories reported by respondents may be partially responsible for the low levels of variance accounted for by the independent variables. If the drivers do not comply with these regulations, there would be compl… Indeed, a consumer’s need to access purchase-relevant expertise that s/he does not personally possess would potentially lead to the solicitation of information and advice from persons not only different from the consumer her/himself, but different from referents contacted for other purchases (e.g., legal and landscaping expertise may reside in substantially different individuals). This usually occurs when a person lacks knowledge and looks to the group for guidance. WHAT TYPES OF … Coded in this fashion, the data contained 12 instances of normative social influence, 42 of informational, and 20 characterized by both influence types. Explain the person, procedures, and competing interpretations behind the Milgram experiments on authority. We may use drugs with our friends without really wanting to, and without believing it is really right, because our friends are all using drugs. Back to top; 21.2: Informational Conformity- Conforming To Be Accurate; 21.4: Majority Influence- … A self-report bias may exist in favor of informational social influence, given a possible reluctance to admit normative motivations (hopefully minimized by the assurance of anonymity), that would result in the miscategorization of some purchase episodes. The implication is that projecting the likelihood of social influence per se is inadequate for a marketer attempting to inject his or her product/service into this communication realm. In some situations normative influence may occur where individuals associate with complete strangers. A consumer seeking normative rewards will likely seek out the mediators of such rewards, commonly members of peer, reference, or other associational groups with whom s/he has regular contact. Bearden, William O. and Randall L. Rose (1990), "Attention to Social Comparison Information: An Individual Difference Factor Affecting Consumer Conformity," Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (March), 461-471. Brinberg, David and Linda Plimpton (1986), "Self-Monitoring and Product Conspicuousness on Reference Group Influence," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Start studying Social: Normative & Informational Social Influence. A good everyday example would be drivers complying with traffic rules set by public authorities. ", Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28, 2001     Pages 280-285, DIFFERENCES IN NORMATIVE AND INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE, Myung-Soo Lee, City University of New York. Kelman, Herbert C. (1961), "Processes of Opinion Change," Public Opinion Quarterly, 25 (Spring), 57-78. Conspicuousness, contact and advice solicitation frequency, and consumer-referent homophily with respect to the value attached to warm relationships were greater when normative influence was involved. Normative social influence relates to conformity with the expectations of other persons or groups to achieve rewards or avoid punishment (Homans 1961). In addiion to individual differences, situational factors (e.g., the presence or absence of referents at the time of decision making and their relationship to the decision maker) may dramatically affect the extent and type of social influence that occurs B a possibility that could be examined experimentally. Burnkrant, Robert E. and Alain Cousineau (1975), "Informational and Normative Social Influence in Buyer Behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, 2 (December), 206-215. While extant literature establishes the existence and some characteristics of normative and informational social influence, more research is needed. The work of Brown and Reingen (1987), cited earlier, established that "of an individual’s potential personal sources of information, the more homophilous the tie, the more likely it is activated for the flow of referral" (p.354), but did not address the issue of potential differences between normative and informational influence. For purposes of hypothesis testing, the type of influence exerted served as a blocking variable (to capture normative and informational social influence), with means for the variables addressed by the hypotheses compared across groups. At the individual level, pivotal factors leading to normative influence are the desire to form a good impression and the fear of embarrassment. Thus bigger majorities should result in more informational conformity. The motivation behind normative conformity is the desire to be liked and accepted in society. Thus the objectives for seeking information from social referents (to enhance one’s decision-making ability through the acquisition of product-relevant information from a more knowledgeable source or to attain or reinforce normative rewards or avoid punishments) will be partially a function of the levels of involvement, complexity and conspicuousness. COMPLIANCE Compliance refers to a particular kind of response—acquiescence—to a particular kind of communication—a request. Situations involving both normative and informational social influence were characterized by a mean involvement level comparable to that of the informational group and significantly higher than the normative (5.65). Each respondent was then asked to identify two purchase decisions, occurring within the most recent three months, in which information or advice was sought from another person or persons. Effects similar to those predicted for involvement have been ascribed to product or decision complexity; e.g., the more evaluative criteria employed in alternative evaluation the more time spent in search (cf. In this lesson, we discuss the two types of social conformity and differentiate between conformity and obedience. As a starting point, it would be appropriate to replicate this study, using a larger and more representative sample. The observation that in many instances consumers jointly pursue both normative and informational objectives in exposing themselves to such sources is also a message that should not be lost on the marketer. This type of conformity usually involves internalization – where a person accepts t… Informational influence refers to the provision of credible evidence of reality (Burnkrant and Cousineau 1975). Conformity research Revision and going deeper 1. To avoid self-report bias, to enhance internal validity and to reduce heterogeneity of variance, a follow-up study could productively adopt an experimental approach, in which subjects role play decisions, product categories are held constant across subjects, and relevant independent variables (e.g., homophily) are experimentally manipulated. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that: H1: Purchase situations involving informational social influence will be characterized by higher levels of involvement in the product or service decision than those involving normative influence. The pattern of results emerging from these tests is thus consistent with H6. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! However, whether the active solicitation of such information takes place among those with whom a consumer has frequent or infrequent contact may depend upon whether the objectives of such solicitation are normative or informational. Whereas informational influences serve to acquire adequate representations of reality, normative influences aim at preserving intact social relations. Frequency of contact and prior advice solicitation were clearly greater in normative than in informational influence situations. LaTour, Stephen A. and Ajay K. Manrai (1989), "Interactive Impact of Informational and Normative Influence on Donations," Journal of Marketing Research, 26 (August), 327-335. Describe the results of research on conformity, and distinguish between normative and informational social influence. Contrary to their expectations, however, they also discovered that weak ties were more likely to be actively sought out explicitly for such information. INTRODUCTION Despite a recognition that social influence in the marketplace may be either normative (motivated by social norms/rewards) or informational (based on perceived referent expertise), little attention has been paid to differences between the two. (While the impracticality of a lonitudinal design precluded measurement of the constructs before the social-influence incidents they affected, these variables are assumed to be sufficiently stable to allow an inference that hypothesis-consistent results indicate their existence antecedent to that influence.). As noted earlier, Bearden and Rose (1990) established the validity of the Lennox and Wolfe (1984) Attention to Social Comparison Information (ATSCI) scale, designed to capture "consumers’ predisposition to act on the social cues available at the time a purchase or consumption decision is being made" (p. 461). Following early conceptual work by Deutsch and Gerard (1955) and Kelman (1961), researchers in this area have identified three forms of social influence C informational, normative and value expressive. Brinberg and Plimpton (1986) found a relationship between consumption and conspicuousness and value-expressive influence. Childers, Terry L. and Akshay R. Rao (1992), "The Influence of Familial and Peer-based Reference Groups on Consumer Decisions," Journal of Consumer Research, 19 (September), 198-211. Tests of homophily and heterophily are constrained by the lack of objective observation or reporting of referent characteristics. Drawing upon those motivations and relevant prior research, hypotheses are proposed that employ type of influence as the independent variable, examining differences in several decision-characteristic, individual-difference and consumer/referent-relationship variables. Alternatively, a heterophilous tie is one in which the two individuals manifest substantial differences on such relevant dimensions. Mascarenhas and Higby (1993) suggest that "susceptibility to interpersonal influences could be proportional to one’s involvement with the products/services that one plans to purchase" (p. 57). The prior two decades have seen sporadic research efforts aimed at further clarifying the nature of social influence in a consumer decision context. The resulting data set contained 74 incidents of social influence (a few respondents reported only one purchase situation). While the participant and the confederate discussed the magazine photos, the confederate mirrored the posture, movements, and mannerisms displayed by the participant. Difference Between Conformity And Non Conformity. Although normative and value-expressive influence are conceptually different, they have been found to be quite similar and have proven difficult to distinguish empirically (Burnkrant and Cousineau 1975; Bearden, Netemeyer and Teel 1989). Social Conformity Imagine you’ve volunteered for a study. LaTour and Manrai (1989) hypothesized and showed support for a synergistic interaction between normative and informational social influence attempts, such that combined normative-informational strategy yielded results superior to those observed for either approach employed in isolation. However, behaviors that are originally performed out of a desire to be accepted (normative conformity) may frequently produce changes in beliefs to match them, and the result becomes private acceptance. Brown, Jacqueline Johnson and Peter H. Reingen (1987), "Social Times and Word-of-Mouth Referral Behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (December), 350-362. In coding the questions addressing respondent’s reasons for consulting a particular referent, it became obvious that multiple decisions included a combination of normative and informational objectives on the part of respondents. Having completed the latter battery of questions for each referent, the respondent completed the same psychographic and demographic measures relative to himself or herself. The fact that such implicit heterogeneity of variance did not attenuate the significance of the differences between the three social influence categories, however, speaks to the reality of the observed differences. There are cultural differences that determine the preferred female form. Fundamental to the distinct nature of the two influence types is the issue of whether the consumer’s overriding concern is with the achievement of desired product/service-relevant (informational) or relationship (normative) outcomes. Missed the LibreFest? Perhaps you know someone who started smoking to please his friends but soon convinced himself that it was an acceptable thing to do. 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